Liberal Peace Conflict, Gender, and Peacebuilding

Liberal Peace Conflict, Gender, and Peacebuilding

Thursday 26 September 2019

KUMBUKIZI LA MWALIMU JULIUS KAMBARAGE NYERERE NA PIUS MSEKWA

Image result for photos of mwalimu nyerereMwezi ujao watanzania na dunia nzima wataadhimisha miaka 20 ya kifo cha baba wa taifa mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere. Hivyo, kila mtu, kwa namna aliyomfahamu mwalimu, anapata fursa ya kumdurusu kama sehemu ya kumbukumbu ya gwiji huyu wa ukombozi wa Afrika ambaye wengi wanamkumbuka na kumkosa hasa michango yake katika ukombozi wa nchi nyingi.
         Kwa vile komredi Msekwa ni mmoja wa wanafunzi na wafuasi wa kweli wa Mwalimu Nyerere, maandiko yake ni kama dirisha katika maisha ya Mwalimu ambayo si wengi wanayafahamu.
Kwa habari zaidi BONYEZA HAPA.                                                               Kila ifikapo  tarehe  14 ya mwezi  Octoba  ya  kila  mwaka, Taifa la Watanzania huwa tunafanya vitendo mahsusi  vya  aina  mbali mbali mbali, kwa ajili ya  kukumbuka   siku ya kifo cha Baba wa Taifa letu, Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere, kilichotokea  alfajiri  ya tarehe 14 Octoba, mwaka 1999;  kwenye hospitali  ya St. Thomas  iliyoko  mjini  London,  Uingereza;  ambako alikuwa akipatiwa  matibabu.
Miaka ishirini ni mingi sana katika maisha ya binadamu.  Kwani inamaaninisha kwamba kuna  kizazi kipya kabisa cha Vojana  waliozaliwa  baada ya kifo cha  Baba  wa  Taifa letu, hayati  Mwalimu  Julius  Nyerere.  Wengi wa vijana hao hivi sasa  bado wako  mashuleni, na  wengine  katika  Vyuo  Vikuu. Kwa hiyo hawakubahatika kumuona Mwalimu Nyerere alipokiwa   yungali hai.                Ni  wajibu  wetu  sisi  tuliobahatika  kuishi naye, na hasa  kufanya  kazi  naye kwa  karibu sana; kuwarithisha  vijana  hawa  kumbukizi  hizi  za  Baba  wa  taifa;  pamoja  na  kuwashauri wajitahidi  kuweka  nia ya kuishi  maisha  yenye  maadili  mema  kama  alivyoishi  yeye; na  hususan  wale  ambao  watabahatika baadaye  kushika  nafasi  za Uongozi;  basi wajitahidi sana  kuiga mfano wa  Mwalimu  Nyerere  wa  Uongozi  bora,  yaani  uongozi  unaojali  maslahi  ya watu  walio  wengi, na siyo kutanguliza  masilahi yao  binafsi.
Tunapaswa kumkumbuka; kumuenzi; na kumuombea.
Kama mwongozo wa kuwasaidia VJANA wa vizazi vipya waweze kutekeleza jambo  hili  zito wakiwa  na  uelewa  unaostahil,  napenda  kutoa  ushauri  ufuatao: kwamba   katika  kumbukizi hizi za  kila  mwaka za kifo cha Baba wa taifa;  sisi  Watanzania  tunapaswa kuzingatia  mambo  makuu  matatu yafuatayo:   1. KUMKUMBUKA;    2.KUMUENZI;  na 3.KUMUOMBEA.                                                  
Ufafanuzi wake ni kama ifuatavyo: -
LA KWANZA, tukiwa   kama familia moja ya Watanzania, tunapaswa KUMKUMBUKA daima Mwalimu Julius   Nyerere; kutokana  na  mahusiano  yetu  na yeye  kama  Baba wa Taifa  letu.  Hii ni sawa kabisa   na marehemu baba wa familia yoyote ile anavyokumbukwa daima, na wana-familia  yake.
Lakini zaidi ya hilo, yatupasa vile vile tumkumbuke daima Mwalimu Nyerere kwa  kazi  kubwa  aliyotufanyia,  ya kutuletea  ukombozi  wa  nchi  yetu  kutoka  katika  utumwa  wa  kutawaliwa  na  wakakoloni.  Kwani ni   juhudi   zake ndizo zilizofanikisha kuipatia UHURU nchi yetu, tarehe  9 Disemba, 1961.                                                                                                                                                          
Kuhusu  sualla  hili muhimu,  naona  ni  vema zaidi,  na  ni  haki,  nitumie  nafasi  hii  kuwakumbusha  Watanzania wa  vizazi  vipya  juu ya  sadaka  kubwa   aliyoitoa  Mwalimu  Nyerere  binafsi,  kama mchango wake  katika  harakati  za  kupigania  UHURU  wa  nchi yetu;  wakati  alipochagua  kuacha  kazi  nzuri,  na yenye  maslahi  mazuri,  aliyokuwa  nayo  alipokuwa   mwalimu akifundisha  katika  Shule  ya  Sekondari  ya  Pugu (wakati  huo  ikiitwa  St.  Francis College, Pugu, ikiendeshwa na Wamisionari wa Shirika la Holy ghost Fathers, kutoka Ireland).  
Kuna wakati ambapo   Mwalimu Nyerere alianza kujihusisha kwa nguvu katika shughuli za TANU.  Basi, kama mbinu mahsusi ya kumzuia Mwalimu Nyerere asijihusishe na shughuli hizo   za kupigania UHURU, Serikali ya  Ki-koloni  ilimshinikiza  Mwalimu  Mkuu wa  Shule  hiyo,  amuite  rasmi  Ofisini  Mwalimu  Nyerere,  na  kumshauri  kwamba  lazima  aachane  kabisa  na  siasa, ili  aweze  kufanye  vizuri  kazi   yake  ya Ualimu  kwa   kutumi  muda  wake  wote  katika  kazi  yake  hiyo  tu.                                      
Mwalimu Nyerere alichukua muda mfupi tu kutafakari   ushauri  huo.  Na kwa ujasiri mkubwa, akachagua kuacha  kazi ya Ualimu,   ili aendelee na  shughuli  za  kupigania UHURU kupitia TANU.
            Kwa   faida ya kuhifadhi kumbukumbu halisia, naweka  hapa  nakala  halisi  ya  barua  yake  ya  kujiuzulu,  ambayo  Mwalimu  Nyerere  alimwandikia  Headmaster wa  Shule  hiyo;  mnamo            tarehe  22  Machi,  1955.
The Headmaster,                                                                                                                                              
 St. Francis College,                                                                                                                                             
 Pugu.
Dear Father Lynch,
I have considered the choice which you gave me, between my job at the School, and my membership of TANU; and have come to the conclusion that I must resign from my post at the School.
But now I find myself presented with the exactly the same choice. In so far as TANU is interfering with my work at the school, the problem is personal; and sooner or later, I would  have  to  reduce  my  activities  in  TANU; or  take  the  choice  myself  between  TANU  and  the  school.  In that case, the choice would have been real, and if I had found that I could not do both things sufficiently efficiently, it is  probable  that  I would  have  had to  leave  the  School  to  go and  organize  TANU. 
But when resignation from TANU is given to me as a condition for retaining my job, the whole problem becomes one of principle. . .                                         I am sorry that my activity in TANU has actually affected the efficiency of my teaching.  I am sorry about the inconveniences that my resignation will temporarily cause you and my colleagues.     I am sad about the economic consequences to my family.                                                                                           
If I were in your position, Father, I would have probably acted in the same way as you have done. My only hope is that   had you been in my position, you would probably have taken the same  action  as  I  have  taken.                                                                                                                                                      
I shall need your prayers now more than I have ever done before.
Your loving son in Christ,
 Julius Nyerere.
Kwa hakika, ulikuwa ni UAMUZI WA BUSARA sana kwa nchi yetu.  Lakini ni dhahiri kabisa kwamba ulikuwa ni uammuzi MUGUMU sana kwake  binafsi.
Naishukuru sana   Radio yetu ya TBC TAIFA, kwa jinsi   inavyoendelea kutukumbusha   kila   siku katika  vipindi  vyake,   kwa   wimbo  mzuri  wenye  maneno  yasemayo:   “Kama  siyo  juhudi  zako  Nyerere,  na  uhuru  tungepata  wapi?”   
             JAMBO La PILI, ni KUMUENZI Mwalimu Nyerere. Tunapaswa kumuenzi   kwa mambo mengi mazuri aliyotufanya wakati wa uhai wake.  Miongoni mwa mambo hayo, ni haya yafuatayo: -
(i) ALITUJENGEA MISINGI IMARA ya ‘Uongozi   na Utawala bora’ wa nchi yetu.                           
Misingi hiyo imara ya ‘Uongozi na Utawala bora’, aliiweka katika maeneo matatu makubwa na  muhimu  sana  katika  ya utawala  wa  nchi, ambayo  ni:   (a)  Katiba  ya  Nchi,  (b)  Sheria  za  nchi,  na       
(c) Miongozo mbali mbali ya kiutawala yaani SERA.                                                                                                       Kwa kuwa mambo yanayohusu Katiba ya nchi, Sheria za nchi, pamoja na Sera; kwa kawaida  hupitishwa  katika  Bunge,  na  kwa Kuwa  mimi  nilibahatika  kuwa  ndiye  Katibu  wa  Bunge  katika  kipindi  husika,   nilipata  pia  bahati  ya  kuyashuhudia  mambo  haya  yakifanyika  ndani  ya  Bunge.  Kwa undani zaidi, mambo yenyewe ni haya yafuatayo: -                                                       (a)  Kuhusu KATIBA ya nchi; ni kwamba:   pamoja na mapungufu ambayo sasa yanaonekana  kuwamo  ndani  yake,  lakini  ni  kweli  pia  kwamba  Katiba  aliyoibuni  Baba wa Taifa, ndiyo  imetuwezesha  kubadilisha   ma-Rais  wetu  kwa  amani  na utulivu,   kutoka  awamu  moja  kwenda awamu  nyingine  ya Uongozi.  Na hadi hivi sasa, tuko katika awamu ya nne  baada  ya  yeye kuondoka   madarakani;  na   ma-Rais  wetu  wastaafu  wote  watatu  waliomfuata  wako  vizuri  tu,   wakiishi  kwa  amani  bila  wasi wasi  ndani  ya  nchi  yao;   pamoja  na  kushirikishwa   kikamilifu  katika  shughuli   nyingi  za  ki-taifa  zinazowahusu. 
(b)  Kuhusu SHERIA.   Miongoni mwa sheria za nchi alizo zibuni Mwalimu  Nyerere mapema  sana wakati  wa  Utawala  wake,  na   ambazo  zimeleta  amani  na  utulivu  ndani ya  nchi,  ni  pamoja  na  Sheria  ya Ardhi  ya mwaka  1963;  iliyoondoa  ubepari  wa  watu  wachache   kuweza  kuhodhi  mapande  makubwa  ya ardhi  bila kuitumia.  Mwalimu Nyerere alisababisha kutungwa kwa sheria ambayo   iliifanya   ardhi yote ya  Tanzania  kuwa  ni  mali ya Serikali;   na  yeyote  mwenye mahitaji  ya kutumia ardhi  hiyo, inabidi  aiombe  Serikali  kipande ambacho   anakihitaji,  na  Serikali  itampatia  kipande  hicho   kwa  masharti   maalum  kuhusu   matumizi  yake. 
Sheria nyingine muhimu, ni Sheria ya ELIMU, ambayo iliondoa ubaguzi wa  aina yoyote   katika  uandikishaji  wa  wanafunzi  mashulen, kama  tutakkavyolezea  zaidi  badaye  kidogo.
(c) Kuhusu MIONGOZO YA KI-UTAWALA, au SERA; ni kwamba   Mwalimu Nyerere alibuni mapema sana, utaratibu  mzuri  wa  kuwa  na  MIPANGO YA  MAENDELEO  ya miaka  mitano  mitano;  iliyolenga katika  kuhakikisha  kwamba  wananchi  wote wanapata maendeleo   kwa  pamoja, katika  ujumla  wao. Sera hii Ilisaidia sana kuepusha uwezekano wa ama  watu  wachache  tu, au maeneo  machache tu  ya  nchi,   ndiyo  yanafaidika  ki- maendeleo  ya  kiuchumi na  kijamii;  wakati watu  wengine  wengi,   au  maeneo  mengine, yakibaki  nyuma  kimaendeleo.                                                                                                            
 (iii)   ALITUJENGEA MISINGI    IMARA YA UMOJA, UTULIVU, NA AMANI.
Katika Kujenga misingi hiyo ya   Umoja, mshikamano, Amani na Utulivu wa nchi  yetu;                    Mwalimu  Nyerere  alitumia mbinu  sahihi  za  ki-utawala   zifuatazo:-                                            KWANZA, ALIFUTILIA MBALI VIKWAZO ambavyo kwa kawaida ndivyo vinavyoathiri Umoja miongoni mwa watu;   vilivyokuwa  vimewekwa  na Utawala uliotangulia  wa  Ki-koloni;  ambavyo  ni  hivi  vifuatavyo:-                                                                           
(a)  ALIFUTA   SHERIA iliyokuwa   imeunda   Utawala wa Kikabila wa WATEMI.                                     Sheria hiyo ilikuwa inasababisha  watu wa kila  kabila kujiona  kuwa  ni tofauti  kabisa  na watu wa makabila  mengine.   Kwani hali hiyo iliwajengea utii (allegiance) kwa Mtemi wao tu; na  hapakuwapo   kiungo cha  moja  kwa moja  cha  kuwaunganisha  na watu wa makabila  mengine, ambao  walionekana  kama  ni  watu  wa  nchi  nyingine tofauti!  (foreignes).                                                  
(b) ALITAIFISHA   Shule zote za kibaguzi, hususan   zile zilizokuwa   za madhehebu ya Dini, ambazo zilikuwa   zinapokea wanafunzi waliokuwa ni wafuasi wa madhehebu yao peke  yao.                                                                                                      (c) ALIJENGA Shule   za Sekondari za bweni katika maeneo tofauti tofauti ya nchi,  pamoja  na   kuweka  sera  ya  kuchanganya   wanafunzi  wa makabila  na  dini  tofauti  tofauti  katika  Shule  hizo.                                                         
(d) ALIBUNI  na  KUTEKELEZA  mpango wa  Jeshi la kujenga Taifa (JKT);  kwa lengo  la kuwaunganisha  vjjana  wa  makabila  na  dini  tofauti  tofauti,  hususa   wale  ambao  hawakubahatika  kuchaguliwa  kuingia  katika  vyuo  vya  Sekondari  na  vya Elimu ya  Juu;  ambapo, kupitia  JKT, waliimarishwa kwa kupewa  mafunzo  ya  kuwajengea  Uzalendo;  na  vile vile  fursa   hiyo  iliwawezesha   kujenga  mahusiano  ya  ukaribu  na urafiki  miongoni  mwao, na  kujiona  kwamba  wote  ni  vijana  wa  taifa  moja.
(e) ALIIKUZA sana   lugha ya   Kiswahili, kwa kuifanya kuwa   ndiyo lugha rasmi  ya taifa  letu.                     Hapana shaka kwamba lugha   ya Kiswahili imechukua  nafasi  kubwa  sana  katika  kujenga  Umoja  miongoni  mwa  Watanzania.
 (iv)  ALITUJENGEA MISING IMARA YA   MAADILI MEMA.
Katika Kujenga misingi hiyo ya MAADILI MEMA katika taifa  letu, Mwalimu Nyerere   alitumia  mbinu  zifuatazo:-                                                           
(a) ALIBUNI   AZIMIO LA ARUSHA, ambalo, pamoja na mambo mengine.  Pia liliweka masharti ya “Miiko ya Viongozi.”  Na ili kuonesha mfano mwema kwa Viongozi wengine, yeye mwenyewe pia aliamua  kuishi  maisha  yake  kwa kutekeleza  masharti   hayo,  kulingana  na  kauli  yake ya  kwamba  “kuongoza  ni  kuonesha  njia.”   Kwa mfano, Mwalimu Nyerere   hakuwa kabisa na tabia, au tamaa, ya kujilimbikizia mali, ambayo ni  tabia ya viongozi  walio   wengi  zaidi  duniani.                                                                      
Aidha, alikuwa ni mcha Mungu kwa   kiwango cha kupigiwa  mfano;  kwani  aliiishi  kwa kuzingatia  falsafa  ya   “Kazi  na  Sala”                                                                                                         (b) Lakini  mbali  na  masharti  hayo  ya  ‘Miikoi ya  viongozi’; Azimio  la Arusha   vile vile  lililenga katika kujenga    mfumo  mpya  wa  maisha kwa  Watanzania  wote,  yaani  maisha  yaliyojikita  kwenye  msingi  wa  “Usawa wa Binadamu”;  ikiwa  ni  pamoja  na  kutambua  kwamba, “kila  mtu  anastahii  heshima  ya kutambuliwa  utu  wake.”                         (c) ALIANZISHA MAPAMBANO  MAKALI   idhidi ya adui RUSHWA; kwa kuweka Sheria mpya  kali, ikwa  ajili  ya kuwadhibiti   watuhumiwa   wale  ambao  wangepatikana  na  hatia  ya  kutenda  kosa   la  kutoa,  au kupokea  rushwa;  pamoja  na  kubuni  msemo  wa  “Rushwa  ni  Adui  wa  Haki.  Sitatoa wala  Kupokea   Rushwa”.
LAKINI, AZIMIO LA ARUSHA hilo hilo, ndilo ambalo pia lililoibua falsafa ya  UJAMAA  NA  KUJITEGEMEA, kama  njia pekee  yenye uhakika  wa   kuifikisha nchi  kwenye  malengo  yake  ya  Maendeleo  ya  ki-uchumi;   kwani   njia  nyingine,  kama  zile  za  kutegemea   fadhila  ya  Missada  na  Mikopo  kutoka  kwa  wafadhili  wa  nchi  nyingine,  haiwezi  kuifikisha  nchi  kwenye  malengo  hayo.
           JAMBO LA TATU, ni KUMUOMBEA   Baba wa taifa letu.  Yaani kumuombea kwa   Mwenyezi Mungu, aiweke roho yake  mahali  pema  peponi.  Kwa hakika, hivyo ndivyo huwa tunawaombea marehemu wetu  wote. 
Lakini kuhusu marehemu Mwalimu Julius Nyerere, kuna  jambo  lingine  kubwa , la ziada,  na  lenye  umuhimu wa  pekee;   ambalo  ni  maalum  kwake  tu.   Nalo ni kwamba:  Viongozi Wakuu wa dini yake, yaani Baraza la Maaskofu   Katoliki Tanzania (TEC), tayari wameanzisha  mchakato  utakaowezesha  kumpatia  hayati  Mwalimu  Nyerere,  daraja la  juu  kabisa ki-kanisa,  ambalo  ni  daraja  la  UTAKATIFU.
Kwa sababu hiyo basi:  Waumini wenzake wa dini Katoliki,  wanapaswa  kutumia  nafasi  ya  kumbukizi  hizi za  mwaka wa  20  wa  kifo  chake,  kwa   kujituma  kushiriki  kikamilifu  katika  sala  na  maombi  maalum,  yatakayowezesha   kufanikiwa  kwa   mchakato  huo;  ili  baada  ya  hapo,  tupate  raha  ya    kumuita   Baba  wa  taifa  letu “Mtakatifu  Julius  Nyerere.”
WOSIA WAKE BABA WA TAIFA.
Kweli ni huzuni kubwa, kwa kifo chake Baba  yetu. Alivyoteseka pale Hospitalini. Alipokuwa amekata kauli, alisema mwenyewe moyoni: “Najua nitakufa, sitapona ugonjwa huu.  Nawaacha Watanzania wangu. Najua watalia sana, lakini na mimi nitawaombea kwa  Mungu. Naondoka nikiwa nimewaachia taifa moja, lenye Amani na  Umoja.
Wosia wangu kwao, ni kwamba waipende nchi yao Tanzania.
Wakijua   kwamba hawana nchi myingine, zaidi ya hiyo Tanzania”.
 MWISHO.   
Tunapaswa pia kutimiza wajibu wetu kwake.
Watanzania tunapaswa kukumbuka daima, bila kuchoka, kwamba   tunao wajibu mkubwa   wa KULINDA  na  KUHIFADHI, ile MISINGI imara  aliyotujengea  na  kutuachia;  ya  UMOJA;  AMANI;  na  UPENDO  miongoni  mwetu.  Ni la jambo la kufuahia, na kushukuru, kwamba katika kipindi chote hiki cha  miaka  20  tangu  Baba  wa  taifa  alipoaga  dunia,  Watanzania  tumeendelea  kuishi  katika  hali  aliyotuachia  ya  Umoja;  Amani;  na upendo  miongoni  mwetu,  bila  mifarakano,  au  ubaguzi  wa  kikabila, au  ya  kidini, au ya  aina nyingine  yoyote. 
Lakini yatupasa tukumbuke kwamba tunao wajibu  wa  KUHAKIKISHA,  kwamba  tunaendelea   kuishi,   daima  na  milele,  katika  misingi  hiyo  imara,  aliyotuachia  marehemu  Baba  wa  taifa  letu.
     
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Wednesday 25 September 2019

PRESIDENT MAGUFULI’s VISIT TO VIGUNGUTI ABATTOIR: ANOTHER DEMONSTRATION OF HIS UNIQUE LEDERSHIP QUALITIES.


Image result for machinjio ya vingunguti was motivated to write this piece after reading Freddy Macha’s article (a regular columnist writing from London), which was published in THE CITIZEN of Friday, 20th September, 2019.  He was making a contribution on a news item which dominated the electronic media recently, namely, that of President John Pombe Magufuli’s unscheduled (unannounced) visit to an on- going construction project of an abattoir, or slaughterhouse, at Vugunguti, in the city of Dar es Salaam.
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According to Freddy Macha: JPM’s abattoir visit was such a rare event   even by international standards”.  He then continued as follows: “President Magufuli’s visit to Vigunguti, should be an example of correct leadership, so much needed in Africa”.         
Apparently relying on a You Tube clip, Freddy Macha said in his article: “Thanks to modern live television, the first thing you noticed was the spontaneity, the sincerity, and sense of genuine drama as the President walks in, very well protected as usual.  Then all the responsible chiefs present at the site are openly questioned, starting from the main contractor, the Director of Operations, and the Dar es Salaam Regional Commissioner.   Plus, the local   area residents, who expressed their deep - held grievances on a variety of issues”.  And “that is where the outstanding skills of this President rolled sharply   into focus:  a kind of ‘street Parliament’ came into being.  Eventually, he orders the project to be completed by December 2019 (they have to workday and night) . . .. What President Magufuli did in Vigunguti this week is about being accountable and using power correctly. This should be an example of correct leadership so much needed in Africa”. Those were Freddy Macha’s observations.
But that is actually   President Magufuli’s regular leadership style.
It would appear that  Freddy  Macha’s  vigorous  excitement  about this  single  performance by President Magufuli,  may  probably be a result of his  prolonged  absence from  Tanzania,  which therefore  accounts for his having missed many other similar unscheduled visits by President  Magufuli, to all kinds of sites and locations, for the same purpose of  inspecting  whatever was going on there; and giving  instant, “on-the spot guidance”  to the relevant operatives; which has  resulted  in enormous economic benefits to our country  and nation.                                                                                                              For those of us who have observed President Magufuli “in action” over the last   nearly   four years now, this is his unique style of leadership; which may be described in the following terms:   Firstly, that he is a “doer”, or “a man of action”. Secondly, that he is “a man of his word”, that is to say, a person who actually does whatever he promises to do, otherwise known as a person “who walks his talk”.  And thirdly, that that he is an innovator”, i.e. a person who introduces new ideas, or new ways of doing things. 
His  unprecedented positive  performance  in almost every field speaks for itself; including:   the rapid provision of new infrastructure  in  terms of  new and/or  renovated old School buildings; large numbers of  new hospital buildings and equipment;  numerous  new  clean water schemes; plus new bridges and  tarmac roads   infrastructure projects,   all over the country.
But  with regard to his regular,  impromptu inspection visits to problematic, non- performing   areas  or locations;  perhaps  the  most outstanding example is when, in late 2016,  he paid  such  an  unscheduled visit to Dar es Salaam Harbour;  where he discovered  a  rather  large number of containers waiting to be shipped to destinations outside the country,  which  he  instinctively suspected  were probably loaded with  valuable  mineral materials.  The ‘man of action’ ordered certain steps to be taken immediately to investigate the matter. These investigations revealed a major “disorder” in the mining sector, which had previously remained unknown, or undetected.  Thereafter, he quickly set about to put that sector “in order”, with measures, which culminated in the enactment of two historic “natural Resources protection laws” by the Parliament of the United Republic of Tanzania. These were: - (i) “The natural Wealth and Resources Contracts (Review and Re-negotiation of unconscionable Terms) Act, 2017”; and (ii) “The Natural Wealth and Resources (Permanent Sovereignty) Act, 2017.   The two laws  were closely followed by the enactment of a third law, cited as “The Written Laws (Miscellaneous Amendments) Act, 2017; which  made major important amendments to six other laws; whose overall effect was  to strengthen the supervision and control   of the mining sector,  and its allied  sectors  of oil and natural gas,  by the Government,  but also served  to improve Government revenue collections from those sectors.                      
Reporting  on  these events  the next day, the DAILY NEWS of Tuesday, 4th July, 2017,  joyfully reported thus  on its front page :-  “The overwhelming  support  given to  these  Government  Bills by Parliament  last evening,  has  heralded an entirely new era, to be  based on a strong legal base, which will protect the country’s natural resources  and safeguard Tanzania people’s  economic  welfare. The new laws are expected  to  put the mining sector’s  ‘house’  in order,  after the dust has settled from the recent revelations  by two special committees of experts,  appointed  by President  Magufuli, of  massive thievery and deception which have,  for a long time, been  perpetrated  by the specified mining firms, which were  taking advantage of faulty mining contracts  and  inappropriate applicable laws”.  
What these new laws provided for.
The  Natural Wealth and Resources Contracts (Review and Re-negotiation of  Unconscionable Terms) Act, 2017; defines “unconscionable terms”  as “any terms in any contract,  or Agreement , regarding the country’s  natural resources,  which is contrary to good conscience;  and whose  enforceability  jeopardizes, or is likely to jeopardize,  the interests of the People of the United Republic of Tanzania”.  The Act, consequently, grants new powers to the National Assembly to review any such contracts or Agreements.   It also stipulates the procedures to be followed in respect of any such review process.
The Preamble to this Act is what gives all the basic reasons for the enactment of this law.  It reads as follows: -                                                                         “WHEREAS, by virtue of article 27 of the (country’s) Constitution, the protection of the natural resources and wealth in the United Republic is charged on its People and the Government, the control of which is entrusted to the President;                                                                                                      AND  WHEREAS, by virtue of article 9 (c ) and (i) of  the Constitution requires all activities of the Government to be conducted  in such a manner as to ensure that the national wealth and heritage  are harnessed, preserved and applied,  for the common good, and in order to  prevent  exploitation; and further to ensure that the use of the national wealth and heritage places emphasis on the development of the People and the United Republic;           AND  WHEREAS, the Government  has resolved  to  fairly and equitably undertake protracted measures intended to ensure that the natural wealth and resources  of  the United Republic  are used for the greatest  benefit and welfare of the People  and   the United Republic,  by ensuring that all arrangements or Agreements  entered into by the Government  shall protect the interests of the People and the United Republic;                                                                       AND  WHEREAS,  pursuant to law, the United Republic has permanent sovereign rights  for the purpose of exploring, exploiting, and managing its  natural resources;                             
AND  WHEREAS, the United Republic,  being a sovereign state, has permanent sovereignty over all its natural  wealth and resources, thus   imposing on the Government  the responsibility  of ensuring that the interests of the People of the United Republic are paramount, and are fully  protected in any arrangement or Agreement  which the Government makes, or enters  into,  in respect of such natural wealth resources .   NOW, THEREFORE, it is enacted . . .”                
That then, is the Preamble to the first law. As can be seen, it provides clarity regarding the reasons, or justification, for its enactment; which is. primarily, to protect the economic interests of the people of the United Republic of Tanzania.
The second law, as we have already seen, is “The Natural Wealth and Resources (Permanent Sovereignty) Act, 2017”; which makes provision for giving statutory recognition to the country’s “permanent sovereignty” over its natural wealth and resources.  This  Act   proclaims loudly    that  “the people of the United Republic shall have permanent sovereignty over all the country’s  natural wealth and resources”;  and  further declares, for the avoidance of any doubt,  that “the ownership and control over  its  natural wealth and resources  shall  be exercised  by, and through,  the Government on behalf of the people, and the United Republic”.  The Act also makes provision for the inalienability of the country’s natural wealth and resources   in the following terms: “The (country’s) natural wealth and resources shall be inalienable in any manner whatsoever and shall always remain the property of the People of the United Republic”.   
It further provides that such natural wealth and resources “shall be held in trust by the President, on behalf of the people of the United Republic.                                                     
Thereafter, the Act  imposes certain prohibitions  in the following terms: “It shall be unlawful to make any arrangement or Agreement for the extraction, exploitation, or  acquisition and use, of  the (country’s)   natural  wealth and resources,  except  where  the interests of the People of the United Republic are fully secured,  and must be approved by the National Assembly”.                                                 
The Act also includes a number of other provisions which are designed to benefit the people of Tanzania in a variety of other ways, and to enable the country to benefit substantially from the disposal of its natural resources.   There is no doubt that  these  new laws, which are  the brainchild  of President  John Pombe Magufuli,  will make a huge contribution to the multiple  efforts  being exerted in the direction of uplifting the country’s economy,  and the general welfare of its people, in  particular,  through  the provision of  increased and  improved public  social and  economic  services.
“Magufuli for change”
“Magufuli for change” was President Magufuli’s campaign slogan during the 2015 Presidential elections.  We now have clear evidence that he has, indeed, “walked his campaign talk”.
This reminds me  of what is known as the  “Madisonian view”,  that  is to be found mostly in American political science literature, and  is  expressed  thus:-  “The aim of every political system  is, or ought to be:   first,  to obtain as rulers  men who posses most wisdom to discern, and most virtue to pursue, the common good of society; and in the next place,  to take the most effective precautions  to keep them virtuous  while they continue to hold the public trust”.                          
             Thus, relying on that statement, I would venture to suggest that in our own case,  our political system  (through nomination by Chama cha  Mapinduzi and  endorsement by  the majority of the Tanzanian voters)  has, indeed,  been  able “to obtain for the country’s  ruler”  (President)   a  man from Chato  called  John  Pombe Magufuli (JPM)  who, apparently. “possesses the wisdom to discern, plus the virtue to pursue, the common good” for the Tanzanian Society.                                            
              What is required now is for the same system to carry out the remaining task, of “taking the most effective precautions to keep JPM virtuous while he continues to hold public trust”, i.e. for the remainder of his constitutionally mandated term of office.
piomsekwa@gmail.com/0754767576.
Source: Daily News and Cde Msekwa Himself.