Liberal Peace Conflict, Gender, and Peacebuilding

Liberal Peace Conflict, Gender, and Peacebuilding

Thursday 31 December 2020


 Zimbabwe most famous musician Leonard Dembo aka Musoro wa Nyoka or Snake head was elusive. He was introvert and camera shy. That's why there are no many video of his with his live music but audio only. Dembo died in 1996 aged just 37 years only. However, his legacy is about a bigger than life person. His music still attracts million globally. RIP LEONARD DEMBO.


Bhundu Boys comprised of  Biggie Tembo, Rise Kagona, Kenny Chitsvatsva, David Mankaba Shakespear "Shakie" Kangwena, Shepherd Munyama, Washington Kavhai and Kudaushe Matimba most of whom are deceased except only one Kadaushe Matimba. This band put Zimbabwe's name on the map of the music world. Unfortunately, its members died one after another. Biggie committed suicide while Rise and David died of AIDS.



Wednesday 30 December 2020



The  year  2020  which  ends  today  was,  in  many  significant  respects, an  extraordinary  year;   in  view  of  the  seemingly  extraordinary  events  which  occurred  in  the  course  of  the  year;  especially  to  me  personally,  but  also  to the  whole  of  our   great  nation.  Thus,   as  we  say  goodbye  to  2020, a  brief review  of  the  most  memorable  events  which   occurred  during  this  year  would,  I  am  sure,  be  quite  in  order. My  version  of  these  extraordinary  events  is  presented  in  the  paragraphs  that  follow  here  below,  both  at   the  personal  level,  and  at  the  national  level. At  the  personal  level,  there  were   the  twin,  unexpected events,  when  I  received two  personal   recognitions  that   unexpectedly  came  my  way   during  this  year. These   were:-          
 (a) My  surprise  selection  to  present  the  traditional  symbols  of  ‘accession  to  power’  to  President  John  Pombe  Magufuli,  on  the  occasion  of  his  accession  to  the Presidency  for  the  second  term,  on  5th  November,  2020;  and                     
 (b)  My   other,  even  greater  surprise, of  being  awarded  the   prestigious  honorary  degree  of  Doctor  of  Laws (Honoris  causa),  of  the  equally   prestigious  University  of  Dar es Salam  (the  country’s  premier  institution  of  higher  learning,   and   the  mother  of  all  Tanzanian  Universities),  at  its  50th  graduation  ceremony  on  8th  December,  2020.
        Information   about   my  selection  to  present  the  traditional  symbols  of  access  to  power  to  President  Magufuli,  was  relayed  to  me  by  letter signed  by   the  Permanent  Secretary   responsible  for  the  Public  Service  in the  President’s  Office;  which  also  enquired  whether  I  was   willing  and  ready  to  accept  that  assignment.  I  of  course  promptly  replied  in  the  affirmative,  and  enthusiastically  started  preparing  myself  appropriately  for  the  grand occasion,  which  took  place  at  the  Jamhuri  Stadium  in  Dodoma,  on  5th  November,  2020.
        The  award  of  the  said  honorary  degree  was,  indeed,  a  great  honour,  as  well  as  a  moral  booster   for  me.    In  his  letter  of  invitation  to  me  to  the  graduation  event,  the  Vice  Chancellor,  Prof  William  Anangisye,  kindly  disclosed  that  the  University  had  decided  to  grant  the  Award  “in  recognition  of  your  contribution  in  advancing  knowledge  and  development  of  the  Legal  system  in  Tanzania”.                                 
         In   my  routine  acceptance  speech,  I  humbly  recalled  the  series  of  opportunities  that  were  kindly  given  to  me  by  the  relevant   superior  authorities,  that  enabled  me  to  make  that  contribution.  The  first  was  when  I  was  appointed  Chairman  of  the  Judicial  System  Review  Commission (the  Msekwa  Commission),  in  1975.  The  second  opportunity  was  when  I  was  appointed  a  member  of  the  Law  Reform  Commission  of  Tanzania in  1983,  on  which  I  served  continuously  until  2005;  and  the third  opportunity  was  when  I  was  appointed a  member  of  the  Legal  Sector  Reform  Task  Force  in  1993,  which  completed  its  short  assignment  in  1994.                          
         On  all  of  these   Commissions,  I  was  working  together  with   some  renowned  Judges  and  other  legal  luminaries  of  the  time,  and  our  respective  reports  to  the  Government  did  indeed produce  tangible  positive  changes  in  the  country’s  legal  Sector.  
        My  presenter,  Professor  Rwekaza   Sympho  Mukandala,  said  it  all  when  he  read  the  citation  to  introduce  me  to  the  Chancellor  and  the  assembled  congregation.    “From  now  on,  we  will  address  you  as  Dr.  Pius  Msekwa”  declared  Chancellor  Jakaya  Kikwete.   I   am  very  much  obliged. 
        And  thereafter,  upon   my  return  to  my cozy  home in  Ukerewe,  I  took  the  first  available  opportunity  to  execute  my  thanksgiving  obligation  to  the  almighty  God,  by  promptly  paying  my  annual  tithe (zaka)  to  the  parish  priest;   as  well  as  making  arrangements  for  a  thanksgiving  Holy  Mass  to  be  held  at  my  residence,  which  will  be  preceded  by  a  dedicated, celebratory  private  dinner  for  a  few  invited  ‘ bons  vivants’  (and  appropriately  accompanied  by  a  display  of   fireworks),  in  remembrance  of  this  truly   historic event  of  the  award  of  an  honorary  degree,  award  event;  and  in   humble  obedience  to  the  dictum    “Mshukuruni  Mungu  kwa  kila  jambo”.
        At  the  national  level,  there  was,   first,  the  devastating   coronavirus  pandemic (Covid-19)  which  invaded  the  whole  world,  including  Tanzania,  at  the  beginning  of  March  2020;   but  despite  which,  Tanzania  was  able  to  survive  that   crisis  under  the  expert   leadership  of   President  Magufuli;   who  flatly   refused  to  impose  any  lockdown  solutions   on  the  population;  thus  enabling  Tanzania  to  continue  flourishing,  and  managing  to  enter  the  lower  ‘middle  income’  economy  bracket  in  2020,  five  years  ahead  of  the  scheduled  date  for  that  achievement.
         In   his  own  words,  the  President  said:  “we  never  imposed  any  lockdown  in  Tanzania  (this  was  the  standard  remedy  which  had  been  prescribed  by  the  World  Health  Organization  (WHO)  for  the  entire  world;  whereby  the  normal  movements  of  the  people were  severely  restricted ,  with  national  governments  expected  to  confine  their  populations  strictly  within  their  individual  homes;  which,  in  many  countries,  caused  other  miseries  of  deprivation, including  widespread  hunger),  but  we  continued  seriously  with  our  daily  activities;  trusting  in  God,  and  all  the  time  praying  for  his  protection  against  this  killer   pandemic”.  In  other  words,  President  Magufuli  just refused  to  “copy  and  paste”  the  prescribed  lockdown  measures.  
        And,   indeed,  perhaps  miraculously,  the  prayers  worked  wonders. Then  there  was  the  country’s  general  election  that  took  place  on  28th  October,  2020;  in   which  the  National  Electoral  Commission  received  widespread  accolades  for  the  efficient  manner  in  which  it  organized  these  elections.   The  usual  long    lines  of  voters   waiting  patiently  at  polling  stations  to  cast  their   votes,  were  conspicuously  missing,  as  everyone  was  able  to  cast his  vote  quickly,  and  return  home  to  attend  to  other  duties.  This  general  election  also  produced  absolutely   stunning  and   unprecedented parliamentary  election   results,  that  transformed  the  country’s  Parliament  into  a  de facto  one-party  Parliament;  with  the  usual  standard  complaints by  the  losing  parties,  of  “votes  having  been  stolen”,  when,  in  fact,   their  appointed   election  Agents   were present  at  every  stage  of  the  election  exercise,  precisely  in  order  to  ensure  that  no  cheating  of  any  kind  takes  place. 
        Thirdly,  there  were  also  the  sad   and  sudden  deaths  of  several  former  Tanzania  government  leaders,  at  different  times  in  the  course  of  this  year,  which  greatly  shocked  the  nation;  which  terminated  the  lives  of  the  following  dignitaries:- Former  President  Benjamin  William  Mkapa;   the Constitutional  and  Legal  Affairs  Minister,  and  former  Tanzania’s  Permanent  Representative  to  the  United  Nations  Augustine  Mahiga;   ex Trade  and  Industry  ministers  Iddi  Simba  and  Cyril  Chami;   ex  minister  of  Science,  Technology,  and  Higher  Education   Pius  Ng’wandu;   the  Ethics  Secretariat  Commissioner,  retired  Judge  Harold  Nsekela;   Former  Chief  Justice,  Rev.  Augustine  Ramadhani;  Members  of  Parliament  Dr.  Gertrude  Rwakatare,   and  Richard  Ndassa.  
        Former  President  Mkapa’s  sudden  death  was  particularly  shocking  to  the  entire  nation,  for  the  following  reasons:                                                        
         Firstly,  he   was  the  only  other  Tanzanian  former  President,  to  have  died  after  the  earlier  death  of  founder  President  Julius  Nyerere  in  October  1999.  Former   President  Mkapa   died  in  July.                                       
            But  secondly,  during  the  period  of  his  leadership,  the  late  former  President  Mkapa  had  expressed  certain  views  and  opinions,  which  constitute  a  valuable  guide  on  what  should  be  the  proper  behaviour  of  elected  leadership  in  a  multi-party  political  dispensation;  such  as  the  following  speech  delivered  on  the  occasion  of  his  inauguration  for  the  second  term  in  2000:- “What  is  important  for  our  people, is  that  their  leaders   should  not  aspire  for  leadership  in  pursuit  of  personal  glorification,  or  personal  gain.  Instead  they  should  strive  for  the  glory  of  the  people  as  a  whole  .  .  .  The  attitudes  of  our  political  leaders,  and  those  of  our  people,  must  avoid   looking   at  politics  as  a  ‘dirty  game’,  or  a  game  of  chicanery,  deception,  and  mudslinging.  Instead,  politics  should  be  viewed  as  an activity  that  can  be  pursued  in  dignity  and  decency,  always  putting  the  community,  or  national  interests  first”.             
        It  is  my  humble  submission  that  that  each  of  these  fallen  government  leaders  made  huge  contributions  to  the  progress  and  development  of  our  country  and  its  people,  as  reflected  in  the  teachings  of  the   Holy  Bible,  which  says  thus  in  Ecclesiastes,  9.10 :  “Whatever  thy  hand   findeth  to  do  here  on  earth,   do  it  with  all  thy  might.   For  there  is  no  work,  nor  device,  nor  knowledge,  nor  wisdom,  in  the  grave  wither  thou  goest”. May   their  souls   rest  in  eternal  peace.   Amen.
        Fourthly,  there  was  the  successful  shift  of  the  seat  of  Government  to  Dodoma  from  Dares Salaam.     Following  President  Magufuli’s  promise  to  the  nation,  which  he  made  during  the  annual   celebrations  of  the  “Mashujaa  Day”  on   25th  July,  2016,  when  he   announced  his  commitment  to  relocate  all  the  Ministries  to  Dodoma  “before  the  end  of  his  first  term  in  office”;   to  his  credit,   President  Magufuli  succeeded  in  moving  all  the  government  Ministries  to   Dodoma  by  June,  2020,  which  had  settled   comfortably  in  the  new  ultra-modern  “Mtumba city”   that   was   created  out  of  what  was  previously  Mtumba  Village  settlement;  thus  fulfilling  Mwalimu  Nyerere’s  long  term  dream,   which  had  eventually  come  true.         
            Indeed,   2020   was   a  year of  great   news  and  events,  and  a  year  to  remember. The  honours  that  were  bestowed  upon  me  during  this  year,  have  brought  back  the  precious  personal  memories  of  the  other  extraordinary  events  of   yesteryears,  that  also  came  my  way  at  different  times  during  the  long   period  of  my  public  service,  as  recorded  in  my  forthcoming  book  titled  “The  story  of  my  life  in  the  public  service  :  A  contribution to  the  political  history  of  Tanzania”;  to  be  published  soon  by  Dar es Salaam  University  Press (DUP).   
         At  the  time  when  I  retired from  active  public  service  in  2012,  I  publicly  expressed  my  gratitude    for  having   retired  with  a  warm  heart,  filled  with  immense  personal  satisfaction,  and  gratitude  to  the  four  Presidents  of  the  United  Republic,  who  kindly  afforded  me  the  coveted  opportunity  of  walking  all  the  time   in  the  high  corridors  of  power, and  being  right  at  the  center  of  the  country’s  governance  systems  (the  centre  of  gravity),  both  of  the   ruling  party (TANU / CCM);  and  of  the  central  Government.
        In  relation  to  the  powerful  ruling  party,  particularly during  the  period  of  the  ‘one-party’  system  of  governance,  when  the  lead  slogan  was  “Chama  kushika  hatamu  za  Uongozi”;  I  had  the  privilege  of  occupying  position  no.  3  in  the  party’s  hierarchy,  coming  immediately  after  the  party  Chairman  and  Vice  Chairman;  which  is  confirmed  by  membership  card,  which  is  no.  000003. I  was  upgraded  to  the  no.2  position  under  Chairman  Jakaya  Kikwete.
        And  on  the  Government  side,  during  the period  when  I  was  Speaker  of  the National  Assembly,  and  during  the  Presidency  of  the  late  former  President  Benjamin  Mkapa (1995 -2005),   and  according  to  article  37  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United Republic  of  Tanzania  (before  it was  amended);  I   was  similarly  occupying  position  no.  3  in  the  country’s  leadership  succession  hierarchy,  coming  immediately  after  the  country’s  President  and  the  Vice  President.
        That  provision  was,  in  fact,  what  gave  me  the very  rare  opportunity  of  being  called  upon  to  perform  the  duties  and  functions  of  the  country’s  President,  during  periods  of  the  temporary  absence  of  both   the  President  and  the  Vice  President  from  the  country.  It   was   just  great. 
         AND  LOOKING  FORWARD  TO   2021.
         It  is  customary  at  the  beginning  of  each  new  year  for  people  to  wish  each  other  “a  happy  and  prosperous  new  year”.  I  will  therefore  do  the  same,  and wish  all   our  esteemed  readers  a  happy  and  prosperous  coming   new  year  2021.  / 0754767576.
Source: Daily News and Cde Dr. Msekwa Himself.

Tuesday 29 December 2020

How’ll America and the World Remember Donald Trump?

US outgoing president, Donald Trump, is many things in one. The 45th president, Trump, though negatively, redefined the US. Since coming to power four years ago, despite proving to have had nothing in his toolkit, Trump broke all rulebooks vis-à-vis good governance and trust are concerned. His first hallmark’s the promise of erecting the wall on the border with  and paid by Mexico. Geopolitically, such a take was counterproductive. This, apart from being a product of dodgy and discordant politics, it set the US at loggerheads with almost every country and Americans as well. For, up until now, no border fence’s ever been erected. This isn’t the only promise that Trump vainly made without making good on it. He promised Americans that he’d trough Washington pool full of shady politicos to end up filling it with his broods, in-laws, bootlickers, bootlickers and wheeler dealers. Since most of his appointments were based on nepotism not meritocracy, it’s easy for Trump to hire and fire higgledy-piggledy. Trump didn’t follow any public laid down procedures of hiring and firing. His was to look for the chagrined and mostly incompetent yes men and women–––to politically char,  abuse and misuse–––but not competent colleagues. That’s why he’s leaving office before this materialises.  Furthermore, Trump proved to be an extraordinary daydreamer and self-seeker who ever occupied the White House. Because of promising much and doing nothing or a little, some think; Trump’s a pathological and serial liar as Sen. Bernie Sanders (Al Jazeera, 11/11/2020) once asserted if not an ossified one. Such assertions become true when we remind ourselves of many allegations that Trump once made to end up being proved to mere lies. And his ability and will to deliver had already plateaued at the time he’s voted out after being defeated by president-elect Joe Biden. Up until this moment, Trump’s already proved to be moribund, fallow and lethargic as far as the duties of the president are concerned. There were rumours that he didn’t even attend briefing regularly as the president is duty-bound to constitutionally. In his presidency, Trump had never made any strong speech except just jibba jabba.  He did not run the country as expected rather than just tweeting even in the middle of the night. Essentially, Trump made the presidency nothing but a reality show that cloned and enable him to reach to the apogee of power in the US despite his ineptitude.

            There’s no way one can address Trump’s comportment without touching on his open machoism, misogyny, narcissism, racism and sexism among many Trump’s isms mainly known as Trumpism. Thanks to Trump’s chronic racism, what used to be America’s catch word on the so-called American dream–––that embraced any and everybody–––became American nightmare under Trump. Remember how he barred people from entering based on tugs such as Muslims, rapists, thugs and people from shithole countries among many monikers Trump ascribed to those he racially hated.  Trump used all sorts of abuses and bad language against whomever he deemed to be his enemy.  He quarreled with journos not to mention and called whatever that he didn’t like fake news. To make matters worse, Trump separated toddlers and children from their parents in his drive to prevent immigration to the US. Ironically, he forgot that his mother and grandpa were immigrants who made a killing in the US so as to produce a future president whose two of his wife and ex-wife are foreigners like his parents but not Americans.  Trump’s wife and ex-wife are all foreigners but not Americans except for his second divorced wife Marla Maples.

            If there’s any legacy that Trump leave behind is nothing but merely chaos and out-and-out incompetence at home and abroad. Since coming to power controversially after allegations that there were Russia collusion in elections that saw Trump unbelievably beat Hilary Clinton, Trump proved to be a Russian proxy if not a lackey. His foreign policy wasn’t only incompetent and toxic but also flawed and shambolic. His last disgrace was to forgive convicted criminal allied to him such as Roger Stone, his associate and his former campaign aide George Papadopoulos, who pleaded guilty during the investigation into Russian meddling in the 2016 presidential election. Others are  Paul Manafort, three former Republican lawmakers, including Chris Collins and Duncan Hunter, and four Blackwater guards convicted of killing Iraqi civilians. Similarly, a total of 15 people enjoyed Trump’s presidential pardon illegally.  On presidential pardons, 62%-25%, those surveyed say it would be an abuse of a president's powers if Trump issues a pre-emptive pardon for himself. But most Republicans, 56%-24%, say it would be an appropriate use of his power.

 Generally, Trump turned America into what it likes to call a third world countries by losing almost all allies. Trump embarrassingly embraced dictators in the Middle East and megalomaniacs like Abdel Fateh el Sisi (Egypt), Benjamin Netanyahu (Israel) and partly North Korean Kim Jong Un not to forget his cloner, Vladimir Putin of Russia who stood to lose their leverage in the White House.  For such dictators, Trump became a cheap fixer who helped them to get away with murder as were the case of Saudi Arabian crown prince, Mohamad who stands accused of the murder of journalist and critic Jamal Khashoggi not to mention Egyptian el Sisi who deposed and slaughtered Egyptian only democratically elected president, Mohamed Morsi. Practically, Trump behaved even worse than African dictators when it comes to  the misgovernment presidency. To show how some dictators and power seekers took advantage of Trump, Israel will soon have a fourth election in two years after the fall of Trump that’s likely to signify the fall of Netanyahu too.

            Apart from sheer incompetence  Trump will be remembered as a nepotic president any Western country has ever had apart some ancient Pontiffs of Rome. Trump promised Americans he’d drain Washington bayou full of corrupt politicians. Instead,  Trump filled it with family members, thuggish cronies and hangers-on. Essentially, instead of strengthening the institution of presidency, Trump abused and dissed it. And there’s nothing mimicable Trump’s leaving behind. If anything, Trump’s presidency dented America’s image at home and abroad after lacking a policy and stamina to deal with issues that the US was expected to deal with globally. In the homestretch of his presidency, Trump horribly flubbed Covid-19 pandemic and this resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of innocent people pointlessly.

            All can be said and tolerated, nothing’ll always linger over Trump’s crown as far as his legacy is concerned is nothing but his illogical knockback to concede defeat. This has been a norm in American democracy and elections that whoever loses concedes to the winner and things move on. Trump becomes the first and only one person to forebodingly act in such a shameless manner. For, never before any outgoing or losing president has ever refused to concede defeat nor questioning the legality of elections. If anything, this is nothing but an attack on America’s democracy. Trump abused and attacked the system he’s elected for and entrusted to protect and uphold.  Ironically, when Trump said the election was rigged, he forgot that his government is the one that convened and presided over it! This shows how parochial and mentally wanting Trump is. Again, why did Americans vote for such an unapt and mordant person to the office of president? Just like any other human society, Americans are fallible just like those they deride and derogatively and disparagingly refer to as the third world and many tags. They’re mortals just like you and me.  What’s more, Trump goes down as a failed president the US has had in recent days. How will the US and the world remember Trump and his legacy? It is easy to tell despite the fact that they’re to blame for failing to see Trump’s ineptitude and weaknesses before voting him to office.

Source: African Executive Magazine today.

Saturday 26 December 2020

Tunamaliza na Kuanza Mwaka 2021 Bila Mkapa

Kwanza, kwa kipekee zaidi, tutume salamu na heri za Noeli na Mwaka Mpya 2021 kwa wapenzi wote wa safu hii pia tuwaalike katika kumkumbuka mzee wetu Benjamin William Mkapa rais wa awamu ya tatu aliyetutoka tarehe 24 Julai, 2020. Kifo cha mzee Mkapa kilitokea wakati safu hii haijarejea hewani. Tunaomba kufunga mwaka huu kwa: mosi,  kutoa salamu za rambirambi kwa taifa na familia. Pili, kama kumbukizi la mzee Mkapa, safu hii leo imeamua kudurusu namna atakavyokoswa hasa mwaka 2021 tunaotegemea kuanza  siku chache zijazo inshallah. Kwa tuliomfahamu mzee Mkapa kama gwiji la diplomasia na usuluhishi, kifo chake si pigo kwetu tu bali kwa nyanja ya diplomasia na usuluhishi Afrika na Duniani kote. Binafsi, mzee Mkapa alinisaidia mawazo wakati naanza kusomea shahada yangu ya uzamivu (PhD) kwenye masuala ya Amani na migogoro pale nilipomuomba anipe uzoefu wake. Hii ni baada ya rafiki na ndugu yangu mzee Pius Msekwa–––sasa ‘Daktari’, aliyetunukiwa shahada hii ya heshima hivi karibuni–––kunipa baruapepe yake. Nilimuandikia kumueleza shida zangu. Naye, bila kusita, alijibu “Bwana Mhango, naomba unipe muda kidogo kwani sijisikii vizuri.” Kusema ukweli majibu yake ya kiungwana na kinyenyekevu yalinipumbaza ukiachia mbali kutoa mawazo yake tena yenye kujibu maswali mengi na marefu ya kitaaluma bila kuacha kuniambia kuwa nikihitaji zaidi nisisite kumueleza. Alinipa moyo kusoma ili baadaye niitumie elimu yangu kwa faida yangu na taifa jambo ambalo licha ya kufanya nimkumbuke, sitalisahau.
Kutokana na namna nilivyowasiliana na mzee Mkapa, tena kwa kujibu yeye mwenyewe na si wasaidizi wake, nilipoandika tanzia ya kifo chake, wapo––hasa mahasidi na wakosoaji wake¬¬––walionitumia salamu binafsi kusema kuwa ima sikumjua mzee Mkapa au niliamua kumpendelea na kumpamba. Mmojawapo alijifanya kuzungusha akisema “siamini aliyeandika tanzia hii ni wewe. Maana kiingereza kimepwaya tena broken.” Nilicheka na nikamjibu bila hasira kuwa: kwanza, kiingereza siyo lugha yangu. Na pili kuwa ni hicho hicho kilichopwaya na broken ndicho kilichoniwezesha kukubaliwa kusoma shahada ya uzamivu tena kwenye nchi inayotumia kiingereza kama lugha yake ya kwanza ukiachia mbali kuandika vitabu zaidi ya 20 vya kitaaluma kwa lugha hii hii. Ni bahati mbaya ujumbe ulifika na mhusika hakunijibu tena. Maskini huyu jamaa¬¬–––ambaye ananizidi kiumiri ila si kitaaluma pia namheshimu–––hakujua kuwa mzee Mkapa alikijua kiingereza kama alivyo mzee Msekwa lakini hawakuwahi kuniambia kuwa kiingereza changu ni cha kuungaunga. Hata kitabu cha Magufulification, the Concept that Will Define the Future of Africa and the Man who Makes Things Happen nilichoandika na mzee Msekwa ukiachia kitabu kizima cha tenzi za kimombo kiitwacho Kudos to President Magufuli mbali kazi nyingine ambazo mzee Msekwa amenishirikisha zote za kimombo na hakuwahi kulalamikia kizungu changu. Kwa vile mimi ni mtanzania, kama Mkapa, pamoja na kujua kimombo, bado najivunia lugha yangu ya taifa ya Kiswahili.  Mwingine nilimwambia kuwa mzee Mkapa, sawa nawe na nami, alikuwa na mapungufu yake kama binadamu, ila mazuri yake yalishinda mabaya yake. Nilimwambia kuwa asiye na dhambi awe wa kwanza kumtupia mawe mzee Mkapa tena akiwa marehemu kama yeye ataishi milele. Ni kweli mzee Mkapa wapo aliowakwaza. Wamesamehewa akina Idi Amin itakuwa yeye? Juzi juzi nilikuwa nawasiliana na ndugu Madaraka Nyerere juu ya upatanisho wa marehemu baba yake (baba wa taifa). Na alikuwa na moyo mkunjufu kunitambulisha kwa Jaffar Amin (mtoto wa Amin) kuhusiana na harakati zao za kuzidi kuleta Tanzania na Uganda karibu.
Tuache chuki na utani. Mzee Mkapa, ni mtu aliyeutumikia umma kwa maisha yake yote tena kwa moyo mmoja na mkunjufu. Pia hakuwa mgeni kwa watanzania na hata kimataifa. Burundi bado wanamkumbuka kwa mchango wake katika kuleta amani kwenye taifa hilo ambalo lilipata utulivu baada ya Mkapa kuwasuluhisha. Uganda hawatasahau alivyowasaidia kuunda serikali baada ya kuangushwa kwa Idi Amin. Pia mzee Mkapa alisifika kwa ujasiri wake––na wakati mwingine––ubabe kidogo pale alipoudhiwa. Hata hivyo, alikuwa mtu mnyenyekevu, msomi na muwazi. Rejea sera yake ya Uwazi na Ukweli iliyowasilisha falsafa yake kiutawala. Hata hivyo, mzee Mkapa hakuwa malaika. Pamoja na hii, ni mmojawapo wa viongozi waliokiri mapungufu yake na utawala wake pale alipoandika wazi wazi kwenye kitabu cha maisha yake cha My Life, My Purpose A Tanzanian President Remembers kilichotoka mwaka mmoja kabla ya kufikwa mauti.  Katika kitabu hiki,  Mkapa alikiri wazi wazi kuwa kulikuwa na mapungufu katika baadhi ya sera zake kama vile uwekezaji ambao ulizua manung’uniko kwa baadhi ya watanzania. Kitendo chake cha kukiri tena wazi wazi kwa maandishi kinamuweka kwenye daraja la juu la viongozi waadilifu. Maana walatin  husema verba volant, scripta est manent est yaani maneno huupaa, lililoandikwa ni la milele.
Pamoja na kufanya mengi ambayo si rahisi kuyaorodhesha, marehemu mzee Mkapa atakumbukwa kwa kuanzisha the Tanzania Social Action Fund (TASAF) ambao umesaidia watanzania wengi kupambana na umaskini. Mbali na hili, kitaifa, kama alivyowahi kusema rais John Pombe Magufuli akielezea alivyoteuliwa na Mkapa kuwa waziri, kuwa Mkapa ndiye alianzisha sera ya Tanzania kujenga barabara na miundombinu kwa fedha ya ndani jambo ambalo rais Magufuli amelipanua na kufanikiwa kuwa na miundombinu imara na miradi mingi ya maendeleo ndani ya muda mfupi; jambo ambalo limeishangaza dunia wakiwamo hata maadui zake. Rais Magufuli hafichi kusema kuwa mzee Mkapa ndiye mentor wake kisiasa na kisera. 
Tumalizie kwa kumkumbuka marehemu mzee Benjamin Wiliam Mkapa (Mungu ampe pumziko jema peponi). Hakika mwaka ujao utakuwa na pengo tokana na kifo cha mzee Mkapa. Lala Mahali Pema Peponi Mzee Benjamin William Mkapa. Hamba Kahle Ubaba Mkapa. 
Chanzo: Nipashe Jumapili leo.

The year of the Grim Reaper

Olivier Douliery | AFP

What you need to know:

  • There’s no doubt Covid-19 turned 2020 into a real graveyard.
  • The death tolls that we have seen in America and Europe would have collapsed many an African country.
  • Covid has cheapened life and depersonalised death.

Makau Mutua: The year of the Grim Reaper

I’ve used the phrase annus horribilis before to describe godforsaken years. 2020 has taught me that years past were far more gentler, and that the use of that term was hyperbolic.

        That’s because 2020 has literally been the year from hell. I have wracked my brain for a fitting English term to mount on the rear end of 2020. My conclusion is that 2020 is the Year of the Grim Reaper. In popular Western culture, the Grim Reaper is the personification of the macabre and of death. He – and that’s not an error – is a ghoulish figure shrouded in a black hood and armed with a scythe — a long pole with a curved blade fixed to the top.

        In the “pagan” ritual of Halloween celebrated by children in the West, the Grim Reaper’s foreboding dress flutters menacingly in the wind as he unleashes terror and dread among humans. Imagine the decapitated victims in his wake.

There’s no doubt Covid-19 turned 2020 into a real graveyard. Not since 1918 when the world was attacked by a deadly influenza pandemic – erroneously dubbed the Spanish Flu – although it was first detected in the United States. That pestilence ravaged the globe from December 1917 to April 1920. It infected 500 million and may have killed as many as 100 million. So far, since December 2019, Covid has infected 76 million and killed at least 1.7 million in just 12 months.

Remarkable invention

The good news is that Covid vaccines have already been approved and vaccinations are under way, especially in the West. I always knew the wealthy countries of the West would find a vaccine quickly because the pandemic has killed so many white people.

If Covid had been localised in Africa, or the poorer Global South, you can be sure a vaccine would have taken years – if ever – to come to market. Be that as it may, I am truly grateful to scientists, especially in the United States, for such a remarkable invention in a record time. Let’s see if there will be “vaccine equity” or whether “vaccine nationalism” will gobble up most of the early dosage in the West.

It’s clear that the virus has wreaked havoc with human life and the economies of the advanced countries. For some reason, although data isn’t clear, it seems Africa hasn’t been hit as hard. If that’s true, then scientists haven’t worked hard to find out why.

The death tolls that we have seen in America and Europe would have collapsed many an African country. What’s essential now is for African governments to redouble their efforts to acquire the vaccines to protect the people.

        We know the economic effects will severely be felt within the continent, even as the richer countries recover more quickly. We may have dodged the Grim Reaper’s machete, but economic contraction and privation may kill us.

        I can’t recall another time in my life when a disease has taken so many people. I think Aids was clearly a monster. However, Aids didn’t kill you within a few days. Covid attacks you today and the next thing you know you are on your way for an unscheduled meeting with your maker. Most people die alone because of the strict Covid protocols meant to protect the living.

        Funerals have become even sadder affairs. Visits to the hospital to see a Covid relative are either limited, or forbidden altogether. Covid has cheapened life and depersonalised death. You die alone. It’s the most tragic way to exit the earth – literally on a one-way ticket by your lonesome.

People of colour

It’s true that natural disasters and pestilences strike the poor harder than the rich. That’s been true of Covid as we’ve seen, especially in America where people of colour have died at a higher clip than whites. This doesn’t mean the virus has spared white people, or the wealthy. The virus in the aggregate has taken very large numbers of whites. Among them are some of the most famous and richest on the planet. In that sense, Covid is an equal opportunity Grim Reaper. Money hasn’t necessarily protected folks from Covid. In Kenya, we’ve it seen it fell the high and mighty. There’s been no time to rush wealthy Kenyans abroad for treatment when the virus has struck.

        I don’t like to end the year – around the holidays – with a grim and sombre column. However, I would be disingenuous to my readers if I didn’t close out the year with the most important development of 2020. The most important thing in 2020 wasn’t to make personal progress. It was simply to stay alive and wait for the vaccine.

        If we cross over into 2021 in good health and are able to receive the vaccine, we will have done ourselves and those who love us a huge favour. It’s no time to relax Covid protocols. Let’s continue to wear a mask, physically distance, and practise good hygiene. Happy Holidays!


Source: Daily Nation today and by the consent of the author.



It is exactly seven years now since uBaba Nelson Mandela, the first black president and father of free South Africa, passed on. He died after fighting with long illness.  He was 95 when he died. Due to his role in bringing peace to the world, Mandela will always be remembered as a freedom fight, peacemaker and statesman whose stature is unique, especially compared to African leaders. This blog winds this year with sadness of the gap that Mandela left. RIP Nilishen–––as his late mother Noqaphi Nosekeni used to call him–––Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela. HAMBA KAHLE uBABA WETHU. SISAKUKHUMBULA.

Friday 25 December 2020


Above is the Roman Catholic Basilica of Our Lady of Peace Yamoussoukro Ivory Coast.  This masterpiece was built by the taxes of the pauperised Ivorians under the rulership of their former potentate  Felix Houphouët-Boigny, especially at the time the country was going through hardship.
    Hypocritical western countries offered loans to this fool to build this white elephant.
To make matters worse, Pope John Paul II from Poland consecrated without seeing the injustices Ivorians committed against poor and non-Catholic Ivorians. He was blinded by the fact that this crazy thing would employ some Polish priest to run the thing at the tune of US$ 1.5 million annually. Poor Boigny, the son of an animist chief of Akoue tribe wrongly thought that, by building such a basilica, he would help his country while actually he was ruining it for ever. This thing stands there without contributing anything to national economic. If there is anything it has contributed is nothing but a national shame for the country and the continent not to forget the Catholic Church to which it was offered as a gift despite being the product of corruption, myopia and theft. 


Thursday 24 December 2020


(6 October 1949 – 30 December 2010)
Through music you made the world great
your songs were cool and great
We grieve that you are lost
your work will shine for ever


We  concluded  last  week’s  article  on  Immunity,  Parliamentary  powers  and  privileges,   at  the  point  of  the  Court  of  Appeal’s  judgement,  which  severely criticized  three  MPS  and  two  Officials  who  failed  to  seek  special  leave  to  enable  them  to  give  evidence  in  court,  in  clear  breach  of  section  9  of  the Parliamentary  Immunities,  Powers  and  Privileges  Act,  1988. It  is  perhaps  necessary  to  clarify  that  the  words   ‘Parliamentary  privilege’  refers  to  certain  specified  rights  which  members  of  Parliament  are  entitled  to  enjoy,  such  as  freedom  of  speech  and  debate  inside  Parliament;  and  ‘Parliamentary  immunity’  refers  to  a  set  of  specified  exemptions  from  the  application  of  the  ordinary  laws  of  the  land;  such as  the  exemption  from  legal  proceedings  for  words  spoken  in  the  Hose;  and  the  immunity  from  arrest  for  civil  debts.  
        It  is  also  important  to  underscore  the  point,  that  parliamentary  ‘privileges  and  immunities’  are  granted  to   MPS  solely  for  the  purpose of  enabling  them  to  perform  their  duties  ‘without  let  or  hindrance’.  And  further  that  these  are  strictly  confined  only  to  occasions  when  the  MP  is  actually  taking  part  in  a  proceeding  of the  House; which  is  defined  as  follows:                                                             “An  individual  MP  takes  part  in  a  ‘proceeding  of  the  House’  usually  by  speech,  but  also  by  various  other   recognized kinds  of  formal  action;  such  as  voting,  asking  questions,  giving  notice  of  a  motion,  presenting  a  petition  or a report  from  a  committee”.                                                                                      
        That  is  to  say  that  in  order  for  these  privileges  and  immunities  to  apply  to  an  MP,  he  must  be  actually  exercising  his  recognized  functions  as  such  member  inside  Parliament.   It  is therefore  absolutely  necessary  for  parliament  to  always  abstain  from  abusing  these  privileges.                                  
        Our  readers,  and  other  lovers  of  history,  may  be  interested  to  know  that  this  definition  was  actually  developed as   a  result  of  an  ancient  English  case   that  was  decided  in  1512,  in  which  Richard  Strode,  a  member  of  the  British  House  of  Commons,  had  introduced  a  private  members’ Bill  in  the  House,  aimed  at  regulating  the  tinners  in  Cornwall.  Strode  was  subsequently  imprisoned  for  that  act.    It  is  his  prosecution  and  imprisonment  which  resulted  in  a  special  Act  of  Parliament  being  enacted,  cited  as  “An  Act  respecting  Richard  Strode”;  which  made  the  following  provision:-  “All  suits  and  other  proceedings  regarding  Richard  Strode,  and  every  other  member  of  the  present  Parliament,  or  of  any  Parliament  thereafter, for  the  introduction  of  any  Bill,  speaking  or  declaring  any  matter  concerning  Parliament  to  be  committed  and  treated  of,  shall be  utterly  void  and   of  no  effect”. This  completes  our coverage  of  the  section  on  parliamentary  powers  and  privileges.  We  will  now    move  on  the  matter  of  parliamentary immunities.
The  Parliamentary  immunities.  
These  can  be  listed  as  follows:-
        (i)   Immunity  from  legal  proceedings.
 Section 3  of  the  Parliamentary  immunities,  powers  and  privileges  Act  (no. 3  of  1988)  provides as  follows:  “No  civil  or  criminal  proceeding  may  be  instituted  against  any  member  for  words  spoken  before  the  Assembly  or  any  of  its  committees,  or  for  act  done  bona  fide   in  pursuance  of  a  decision  or proceeding  of  the  Assembly  or  a  committee”.                                                                                                  This  provision  merely  reinforces   the  protection  relating  to ‘ freedom  of  speech  and debate  in  the  Assembly’.  It  means  that  an  MP  can  have  a judgment  awarded  against  him  in  civil  proceedings  arising  out  of  a  speech  made  in  Parliament.
        (ii)  Immunity  from  arrest   for  civil  debts.
        This   provision   also  has   its  origins  in  Britain’s  parliamentary  history.   Again.  for  the  benefit  of   fellow  lovers  of  history  who  may  be  interested  in  knowing  the  origins  of  this  provision,  I  should  explain  that  it  originated  from  the  English  King’s  desire  “not  to  let  anybody  interfere  with  the  agents  of  the  Shires  and  Boroughs  whom  he  had  summoned  to  treat  with  him  about  supplying  money  for  his  needs.  So  he  made  supreme  the  necessity  of  attending  the  business  of  his  highest  court,  and  took  its  members  under  his  protection”.
        The  King’s  main  concern  was  to  secure  the  attendance  of  the  said  members;  which  was  the  principal  reason  for  granting   immunity  from  arrest   to  its  members  when  they  were  on  their  way  to,  or  from,  attending   its  sittings,  and  in  the  course  of  such  sittings.
        (iii)  Immunity  from  service  of  civil  process  within  the  precincts  of  Parliament.
        Section  11  of  Act  no. 3  of  1988;  states  thus:-   “Notwithstanding  anything  to  the  contrary,  no  summons  issued  by  any  court  in  the  exercise  of  its  civil  jurisdiction  shall  be  served  or  executed  within  the  precincts  of  the  Assembly  while  the  Assembly  is  sitting;  nor  shall  any  member  be  arrested  on  civil  process   while  he  is  within  the  precincts  of  the  Assembly,  save  by  leave  of  the  Speaker  first  obtained”.    This  means  that  this  protection  is  not  available  during  the  periods  when  the  Hose,  or  its  committees,  are  not  in  session. But  it  is  also  not  available  to  an  MP  who  is  a  fugitive  from  justice.                                  
        This   is  confirmed  by  the  interesting  1815  case  of  the  arrest  of  one    Lord  Cochrane,  who  was  then  a  member  of  the  British  House  of   Commons.  This  MP  had  previously  been  committed  to  prison  following   his  conviction  of  a  criminal  offence.    One  day  he  managed  to  escape  from  prison,    and  successfully   made  his  way  to  the  House  of  Commons  chamber.  The  House  was  in  session  at  that  time,  had  not  yet  commenced  that  day’s  business.  Thus,  no  other  members  were  present  at   that  material   time.   But   he   was   soon   discovered,   and  re-arrested  right  there  inside  the  chamber.                         
        This  interesting   story shows  that  the  precincts  of  Parliament  do  not  provide  a  sanctuary  for  an  MP  who  is  a  fugitive  from  criminal  justice,  and  offers  no  protection  to  such  fugitives  even  during  the  period  when  the  House  is   actually  sitting.
        Definition  of  ‘the  precincts  of  Parliament’.
        In  that  Act,   the  “precincts  of  the  Assembly”   are  defined  as  “the  chamber  in  which  the  Assembly  meets  in  session for  the   transaction  of  business,  together  with  the  offices,  rooms,  galleries,  courtyards,  and  other  places  provided  for  the  use  or accommodation  of  the  members;  or  any  passages  connecting  such  places,  and  any  other  places  immediately  contiguous  thereto”.
This  now  brings  us  to  the  end  of  our  presentation  regarding  those  peculiar  rights,  that  are  enjoyed  by  members  of  Parliament,  and  which  are  provided  for  in  the  Parliamentary  Immunities,  Powers  and  Privileges  Act  (no.  3  of  1988),  which   are  not  normally  available  to   other  bodies  or  individuals. 
But  since  we  still  have  sufficient  editorial  space  for  this  article,  this  allows  us   to  move  on  to  two  other  equally  important  matters,   namely   that  of  ETHICS  for  Members  of  Parliament;  and  the   extent  of  their  ACCOUNTABILITY.  
        The  code  of  ethics  for  Members  of  Parliament.
        In  1995,  Parliament  enacted  a  law  establishing  a  “Code  of  ethics  for  public  leaders”,  which  is  Act  no. 13  of  1995.  The  definition  of  a  “public  leader”  includes  Members  of  Parliament;   and  for  them,   it  carries   significant  importance, in  the  sense  that  under  the  provisions  of  article  71(1)(g)  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  Republic  of  Tanzania,  a  breach  of   this  particular  law  by  an  MP  can  lead  to  the  immediate  cessation  of his  membership  of  Parliament.                                                                                                              
        The  same  ethics  law  imposes  certain  specified  obligations  on  the  public  leader,  and  also  requires  the  leader  to  observe  certain  specified  standards  of  personal  behaviour.                                                                                                                       The  specified  obligations  read  as  follows:-                                                       
       (i)  A  public  leader  shall,  while  in  office,  act  with  honesty,  compassion,  sobriety,  continence  and  temperance,  trust  and  objectivity;   and  shall  uphold  the  highest  possible  ethical  standard   in  order  to  conserve  public  trust.              
      (ii) Public  leaders  shall  arrange  their private  affairs  in  a  manner  that  would  bear  the  closest  scrutiny,  an  obligation  which  is  not  fully  discharged  by  simply  acting  lawfully.                                       
      (iii)  A  public  leader  shall,  within  thirty  days  of  taking  office,  at  the  end  of  each  year,  and  at  the  end  of  his  term  of  office,  declare   in  prescribed  form,   all  the  property  and  assets  owned  by  him,  and  liabilities  owed  to  him,  his  souse,  and  any  unmarried  minor  children;   without  prejudice  to  the  right  of  their  wives  or  husbands  owning  property  independently  of  their  spouses. 
Failure to  make  this  declaration  without  reasonable  cause;  or  knowingly making  a  declaration  which  is  false  or  misleading  in  a  material  particular,  will  be  considered  as   a  breach  of  the  code  of  ethics; which  attracts  the  specified  penalties.
        And  the  required  standards  of  a  leader’s  personal  behavior  include  the  following,  which  he  must  strictly  avoid:-                                                                  
         (i)   Exerting   any  improper  influence  in  the  appointment,  promotion,  disciplining,  or  removal  of  a  public  Officer.                                                         
         (ii)  Soliciting,  or  accepting transfers  of  economic  value  (read  bribes),  other  than  customary  hospitality,  and  traditional  or  token  gifts;  or  gifts  from  family  members.                                                         
        (iii)  A  public  leader  shall  not  speak  in  the  Cabinet,  the  National Assembly,  a  Local  Government  Council,  or a  committee   thereof;   on  any  matter  in  which  he  has  a  direct  pecuniary  interest,   unless  he  has  disclosed  the  nature  of  that  interest  to  the  forum  in  which  he  is  speaking.                    That  completes  our  presentation  regarding  the  ethics  part  of  that  law;  next  is   the  “accountability”  part.
        The  accountability  of  Members  of  Parliament.
        In   our  parliamentary  system  of  governance,  the  individual  MP is  accountable  to  the  following  authorities:-  (a)  his  political  party;  (b)  his  constituency;  (c)  his  country.
        (a)  Accountability  to  his  political  party  is  clearly  his  foremost  responsibility;  simply  because  his  political  party’s  electoral  support   is  what  facilitated  his  entry  into  Parliament;  and   any  form  of  cessation  of  membership  of  his  party   will  lead  to  his  losing  his  membership  of  Parliament. Hence,  the  MP  is  also  accountable  to  his  political  party  in   relation  to  his  performance  within  Parliament.   Indeed,  the  success  of  any  political  party  that  is  represented  in  Parliament,  but  in  particular  the  ruling  party,  basically  depends  on  the  successful    performance  of  its  MPs  in  the  House.     It  is  primarily   for  that  reason  that  in  return,  his  party  is  entitled  to  demand  the  MP’s  full  loyalty,  especially  when  he  is  carrying  out  his  parliamentary  functions.                     
         (b) Accountability  to  the  MP’s  constituency  also  arises  from  the  fact  that  (in  the  case  of  the  constituency  MPs  who  constitute  the  great  majority  of  Members  of  Parliament),  their   entry  into  parliament  was  facilitated  by  the  votes  of  their  constituents.   That,  in  fact,  is  the  reason  why  there  is  such  wide  media  coverage  of  parliamentary  proceedings,  which  is intended  to  enable  the  electorate  to  know  exactly  how  their  representative  is  performing  inside  Parliament,  so  that they  can  censure  him  if  he  fails  to  perform  to  their  satisfaction.                                                                                   
         (c)  The  MP’s  accountability   to  his  country   is  actually  implied  in  his  oath  of  office,  wherein  he  promises  that   “he  will be  faithful  to  his  country”.  And  this   means   that   should   a  conflict  arise  between  the  interests  of  his  constituency  and  the  ‘national  interest’,  the  MP  must  always  remember  that  he  is  a  Member  of  the  Parliament  of  the  United  Republic  of  Tanzania,  which  is  one  nation, with  one  compound  interest,  namely  the  ‘national  interest’;  and   that  the  national  interest  must  take  precedence  over all  local  constituency  interests.  
Fortunately  however,  these  external  obligations  do  not  obliterate  the  MP’s   personal  entitlement  to  express  his  own  frank   views  and  opinions  on  any  proposal  that  is  brought  to  the  House  for  debate;  for  he  is   also  accountable  to  his  own  conscience.  /  0754767576.
Source: Daily News and Cde Msekwa today.